Biography of Muley Abdelaziz: – Sultan of Morocco (1894-1908). A favorite son of Sultan Muley Hasan and a slave of Circassian origin called Lalla Regia, in 1894 he was appointed successor to the Moroccan throne once his father disinherited the first-born Muley Muhammad. After the death of his father, Abdelaziz was crowned in very difficult circumstances by the serious political and social crisis that crossed the kingdom.
Biography of Muley Abdelaziz
- Born:- 24 February 1878, Fes, Morocco
- Died:- 10 June 1943, Tangier, Morocco
- Nationality:- Moroccan
- House:- Alaouite dynasty
- Parents:- Hassan I of Morocco, Lalla Ruqayyah
- Siblings:- Abd al-Hafid of Morocco
Proclaimed Sultan in Rabat, he was accepted as sovereign by the notables and by the tribes of Morocco, given their contrasted intelligence and the careful education that had received like prince. Precisely because of this European education, Abdelaziz was especially inclined to introduce into the country customs of the old continent, in both the political and social spheres.
Although initially he was subject to the tutelage of Chamberlain Sidi Amed ibn Mouza and the great Vizier Hadj al-Mokhtar, the young Sultan ruled on his own and strove to introduce political reforms, a fact that soon he faced the political class More orthodox and conservative of the country, which accused the sultan of being too lover of progress and corrupted European culture. As the sultan was allowed to be influenced by certain European elements that flooded the court, the discontent of the nation was increasing, especially when seeing how the sultan abandoned Muslim religious practices and turned to the enjoyment of certain European sports beyond The Islamic culture
The gout that filled the glass of patience of the Moroccans was preceded by a series of political reforms that Muley Abdelaziz imposed by decree, which collided flat with the legendary customs and the spirit of the people. The sultan’s increasingly unpopularity was exploited by the Moroccan political class, disgusted by the leadership of the Sultan’s government, to form a political party in support of the defenestration Muley Muhammad, who in 1894 had withdrawn voluntarily Own life.
The first serious insurrection against Abdelaziz arose in the city of Taza, led by the sultan and man of prestige Bu-Hamara, who took as a pretext the violation of the Muslim laws committed by the Sultan in desecrating the sacred place in which he had taken refuge A Muslim accused of murdering the British subject Mr. Bowles. Bu-Hamara declared the holy war to the Sultan and claimed the rights to the throne of Muley Muhammad, who at that time had been imprisoned by his brother.
Defeated by the troops of Bu-Humara in 1903, Abdelaziz hardened greatly the repression of the revolts against his reformist policy until he reached the conclusion of the Conference of Algeciras in 1906, where France and Spain were able to seize the Right to maintain order taking advantage of the extreme weakness of the country, which was going through a civil war between the supporters of the two brothers. With such fragile supports, Abdelaziz’s position became extremely delicate, as he was subject to constant criticism and lacked the respect of his people.
The assassination, in 1907, of the French physician Manchamp by the Sultan’s troops provided France with the perfect excuse to intervene militarily in Morocco. In April of the same year, a French detachment occupied the city of Oujda, to the northeast of the country, without finding any opposition on the part of the sultán troops. This circumstance caused the gradual abandonment of the Sultan’s cause by the tribes of the Fez region, where the sultan had always found his best support; These were swelling the ranks of supporters of the new pretender to the throne, Muley al-Hafiz, his younger brother, who, on January 5, 1908, was proclaimed Sultan in a maneuver in which France participated. Although Abdelaziz attempted to uphold his rights to the throne with arms,
After spending some time in Casablanca, Abdelaziz moved to Europe and lived in several countries, always supported by the French government. On his way back to Morocco, Abdelaziz was granted permission to settle permanently in Tangier, away from all political activity and dedicated to charitable work, with which, now, the respect and affection of the Moroccan people was won. After his death, his corpse was transferred to Fez and he was honored as head of state.