Biography of Mohammed Ali Jinnah:- Leader of the Muslims of India and father of the independence of Pakistan (Karachi, 1876-1948), He was born into a wealthy family of merchants of the Muslim Ismailite sect of the kojas . He studied in England and, in 1896, settled down as lawyer in Bombay.
Biography of Mohammed Ali Jinnah
- Born:- 25 December 1876, Karachi
- Died:- 11 September 1948, Karachi
- Prime Minister:- Liaquat Ali Khan
- Education:- City Law School (1895),
- Spouse:- Maryam Jinnah (m. 1918–1929), Emibai Jinnah (m. 1892–1893)
He joined the Congress party and the Muslim League, which fought against British colonial authorities for the independence of India. Within both organizations he initially assumed moderate postures and vigorously defended unity between the two religious communities of India, Hindus and Muslims. But gradually he became convinced that concord was impossible and opted for the defense of the Muslim minority; This distanced him from the Congress, which he left in 1921 due to discrepancies with Gandhi (he did not accept his appeal to the action of the popular masses outside legality).
In 1931 he turned away from politics, also disappointed by the division and ineffectiveness of the Muslim League. Following the political reform of British India in 1935, he returned to politics, estimating that with the establishment of a democratic system the Hindu majority would dominate the country to the detriment of Muslims. It revitalized the Muslim League as a political party defending the rights of the Islamic minority since the 1937 elections.
From 1940 on, he took on uncompromising nationalist positions, arguing that the decolonization of India should give rise to two separate States, one Hindu and one Muslim; the predicament he reached among the Muslims made him indispensable in the negotiations for independence that began in 1945. Attempts to recover him for the cause of an independent and united India by Gandhi, Nehru and Congress failed.
Consequently, in 1947 the British left India creating two separate States. On the territories of Muslim majority (the present States of Pakistan and Bangla Desh) was created a Republic of Pakistan separated from India, of which Jinnah was named first governor general.
With almost absolute power he tried to deal with the great problems of the new country, plunged in misery, confronted with its neighbors, shaken by violent conflicts, with thousands of displaced people (Muslim minorities fleeing from India and Hindu minorities fleeing Pakistan) And separated into two very distant territorial blocs (East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which would be confronted in a civil war and separated in 1971). But he could not develop the task of consolidating the State he had helped to create, since he died a year later suffering from tuberculosis.